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英语翻译The previous chapter has introduced the cost of transpor

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英语翻译
The previous chapter has introduced the cost of transport for the user as an element in the determination of demand.But the concept of transport cost,in a wider sense,goes far beyond this definition,which has so far included only the direct expenses of road users,or the price of the ticket for public transport users,and the non-monetary costs directly borne by the user such as time taken.In addition we need to include the non-monetary costs borne by the rest of the community; these include infrastructure costs,conventionally borne by public authorities,environmental costs and accident costs.Also for pubKnowledge of costs is necessary for the decision-maker.At a micro-economic level,detailed information,on the factors which govern variations in costs and the distribution of these variations,are the basis for decisions such as pricing,investment choice,and the management of transport enterprises.At amore general level,that of a country or a city for instance,knowledge of costs is necessary to inform public debates about modal shares,charging for infrastructure or equity issues.For those purposes,it is necessary to know,not only the level of costs,but also the cost function which shows how costs vary with respect to various parameters.
There are various ways of gaining this information.First,it is possible to use the accounting framework; but accounts provide information only the present level of costs,they do not give information on the cost function.
lic transport,there are the costs borne by operators,which are not necessarily equal to the price of the ticket.
楼主,你确定这和感情有关吗?
算了.还是试试.有分数吗?
上一章介绍了运输成本为用户在确定的需求作为的一个要素.但运输成本的概念,广泛的意义上远远超出了这个,至今已经包括直接费用,道路使用者和公共交通的使用者票价,还有非货币成本,由用户等待的时间直接承担.此外,我们还需要包括非货币承担的费用.其余的组织,其中包括基础设施费用,公共当局所承担的常规成本,环境成本和事故成本.为了决策人,公共知识成本是必要的.在微观经济层面,详尽的资料里,对哪些因素的变化,执政的成本和分发这些变化,是决定性的依据.如定价,投资选择,以及管理运输企业.在贫穷的水平,比如一个国家或一个城市,知识的成本是必要的.公开告知和辩论有关模态的股份,为基础设施收费或股本的问题.为达到目的,不仅成本水平,而且还有成本函数,都是要知道,这其中显示了成本不同方面的各种参数.
其实有各种方法获得这方面的资料.第一种,它可能是使用的会计框架,但帐目提供资料,是目前的成本水平,他们对成本的功能不提供资料.
像是运输,他们的费用由所承担的经营者负责,不一定等于票价.
好累啊~!